Prof. dr. ir.Kroes, P.A. (Peter)

Delft University of Technology

Section: Philosophy
Faculty: Technology, Policy and Management

Other Philosophical Disciplines
Philosophy of Science
philosophy of technology
Visiting address

Jaffalaan 5
Room b3.350

Mail address

P.O. Box 5015 2600 GA Delft The Netherlands


+31 (0)15 2785143


+31 (0)15 27 86233

Peter Kroes (1950 studied physical engineering at the University of Technology Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and wrote a Ph.D.-thesis on philosophical problems concerning the notion of time in modern physical theories (University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1982).

Since 1995 he is professor in philosophy, more in particular philosophy of technology, at the University of Technology Delft. His main areas of interest are philosophy of technology and philosophy of science.

Important publications: Time: its structure and role in physical theories (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985), Filosofie van de natuurkunde (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987), Technological development and science in the industrial age (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publishers, 1992), and Ideaalbeelden van wetenschap; een inleiding tot de wetenschapsfilosofie (Amsterdam: Boom, 1996).

Scientific publications (selection)


  • Vermaas, Pieter, Peter Kroes, Ibo van de Poel, Maarten Franssen, and Wybo Houkes. 2011. A Philosophy of Technology: From Technical Artefacts to Sociotechnical Systems. Synthesis Lectures on Engineers, Technology and Society 6 (1):1-134. available online


  • Kroes, Peter, and Ibo Van de Poel. 2009. Problematizing the notion of social context of technology. In Engineering in context, edited by S. Hylgaard Christensen, B. Delahousse and M. Meganck. Aarhuus: Academia.


  • Brey, P. (2008). Technological Design as an Evolutionary Process. In P. Vermaas, P. Kroes, A. Light & S. Moore (Eds.), Philosophy and Design. From Engineering to Architecture (22 pp.). Dordrecht: Springer. click to open pdf
  • Kroes, PA, A Light, and PE Vermaas. 2008. Design in engineering and architecture: towards an integrated philosophical understanding. In Philosophy and design: from engineering to architecture edited by P. Vermaas, P. Kroes, A. Light and S. Moore. New York etc.: Springer available online
  • Kroes, PA, Vermaas, PE 2008. Interesting differences between artifacts and natural objects. APA newsletter on philosophy and computers 8 (1):28-31.
  • Verbeek, P.P.C.C. 2008. in Design: Design Ethics and the Morality of Technological Artifacts. In Philosophy and Design: from Engineering to Architecture edited by P. Vermaas, P. Kroes, A. Light and S. Moore. Dordrecht: Springer. available online
  • Vermaas, Pieter E; Kroes, Peter; Light, Andrew and Moore, Steven A. (eds.) 2008. Philosophy and Design; From Engineering to Architecture. Heidelberg: Springer. available online


  • Hughes, J.L., P.A. Kroes, and S.D. Zwart. 2007. A Semantics for Means-End Relations. Synthese 158 (2):207-231. click to open pdf


  • Kroes, P.A. 2006. Coherence of Structural and Functional Descriptions of Technical Artefacts. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 137-151. available online
  • Kroes, P.A. 2006. Technical Artefacts and Moral Agency. Paper read at meeting of the Central Division of the American Philosophical Association, 29-04-2006, at Chicago.
  • Kroes, P.A. 2006. Technical Artifacts, Engineering Practice and Emergence. Paper read at Conference on Comparative Philosophy of Technical Artifacts and Biological Organisms, 22-09-2006, at Konrad Lorentz Institute, Altenberg, Austria.
  • Kroes, P.A. 2006. The Dual Nature of Technological Knowledge. Paper read at Advanced Cement-based Materials: Research and Teaching, at Lyngby, Denmark.
  • Kroes, P.A., and A.W.M. Meijers, eds. 2006. Introduction: The Dual Nature of Technical Artefacts. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, vol. 37, issue1, 1-4.
  • Kroes, P.A., M.P.M. Franssen, I.R. van de Poel, and M.M. Ottens. 2006. Treating Socio-Technical Systems as Engineering Systems: Some Conceptual Problems. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 23 (6):803-814. available online
  • Ottens, Maarten, Maarten Franssen, Peter Kroes, and Ibo van de Poel. 2006. Modelling Infrastructures as Socio-Technical Systems. International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 2 (2-3):133 - 145 available online
  • Reymen, I.M.M.J., D.K. Hammer, P.A. Kroes, J.E. van Aken, C.H. Dorst, M.F.T. Bax, and T. Basten. 2006. A Domain-Independent Descriptive Design Model and Its Application to Structured Reflection on Design Processes. Research in Engineering Design, 147-163. click to open pdf
  • van de Poel, Ibo, and Peter Kroes. 2006. Technology and Normativity. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology, Fall 2006, 10 (1):1-6. click to open pdf


  • Kroes, P.A. 2005. Philosophy of Technology. In The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by E. Craig. Milton Park, Oxon, UK: Routledge. available online
  • Kroes, P.A. 2005. The Dual Nature of Technological Knowledge. Paper read at Hojgaard Conference on Advanced Cement-Based Materials: Research and Teaching, 12-06-2005, at Lyngby, Denmark.


  • Kroes, P.A. 1996. Ideaalbeelden van wetenschap Een inleiding tot de wetenschapsfilosofie. Amsterdam: Boom. Avaiable online: (PDF: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4).

Professional/Popular publications (selection)


  • Vermaas, Pieter, Peter Kroes, Ibo Van de Poel, Maarten Franssen, en Wybo Houkes. 2009. Kernthema's in de technische wetenschap. Boom. available online


  • Kroes, P.A. 2006. Kernenergie: Morele Dilemma’s. Paper read at lezing Rotary Club, 21-03-2006, at Delft.


  • Kroes, P.A. 2005. Het Profiel van de TB-Ingenieur. In De Ontwikkeling van een Nieuw Type Ingenieur: Liber Amicorum Voor Simon A.G. Peerdeman, edited by [unknown]. Delft: Faculty Technology, Policy & Management, Delft University of Technology.
  • Kroes, P.A. 2005. Naar een Geschiedenis van de Filosofie van de Techniek; Een Kommentaar. Filosofie, 34-35.